ARDB-Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database

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[Term]
id: GO:0015893
name: drug transport
namespace: biological_process
def: "The directed movement of a drug, a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease, into, out of, within or between cells." [GOC:ai]
xref: InterPro:IPR004734
xref: MIPS_funcat:20.01.27
xref: MultiFun:4.S.49

[Term]
id: AR:0010001
name: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux
namespace: biological_process
def: "Directed pumping drug out of a cell to confer resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are present in all cells of all organisms and use the energy of ATP binding/hydrolysis to transport substrates across cell membranes" [ISBN:1555812546, PMID: 17429392]
synonym: "ABC type drug efflux" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0015893 ! drug transport

[Term]
id: AR:0010002
name: major facilitator superfamily (MFS) drug efflux
namespace: biological_process
def: "Directed pumping drug out of a cell to confer resistance. Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters and ABC transporters comprise the two largest and most functionally diverse of the transporter superfamilies. However, MFS transporters are distinct from ABC transporters in both their primary sequence and structure and in the mechanism of energy coupling. As secondary transporters they are, like RND and SMR transporters, energized by the electrochemical proton gradient." [ISBN:1555812546, PMID: 17429392]
synonym: "MFS type drug efflux" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0015893 ! drug transport

[Term]
id: AR:0010003
name: small multidrug resistance (SMR) drug efflux
namespace: biological_process
def: "Directed pumping drug out of a cell to confer resistance. Small multidrug resistance (SMR) proteins are a relatively small family of transporters, restricted to prokaryotic cells. They are also the smallest multidrug transporters, with only four transmembrane alpha-helices and no significant extramembrane domain." [ISBN:1555812546, PMID: 17429392]
synonym: "SMR type drug efflux" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0015893 ! drug transport

[Term]
id: AR:0010004
name: resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) drug efflux
namespace: biological_process
def: "Directed pumping drug out of a cell to confer resistance. Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) proteins are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and have diverse substrate specificities and physiological roles. However, there are relatively few RND transporters and they are secondary transporters, energized not by ATP binding/hydrolysis but by proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient." [ISBN:1555812546, PMID: 17429392]
synonym: "RND type drug efflux" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0015893 ! drug transport

[Term]
id: GO:0042221
name: response to chemical stimulus
namespace: biological_process
def: "A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a chemical stimulus." [GOC:jl]
synonym: "response to chemical substance" EXACT []
xref: MIPS_funcat:34.11.03
xref: MIPS_funcat:34.11.03.05
xref: MIPS_funcat:36.20.35.09


[Term]
id: GO:0042493
name: response to drug
alt_id: GO:0017035
namespace: biological_process
def: "A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a drug stimulus. A drug is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease." [GOC:jl]
synonym: "drug resistance" RELATED []
synonym: "drug susceptibility/resistance" RELATED []
is_a: GO:0042221
xref: InterPro:IPR009159
xref: MultiFun:5.6.4
xref: Pfam:PF06442
xref: PIRSF:PIRSF000199
xref: TIGR_TIGRFAMS:TIGR00711
xref: TIGR_TIGRFAMS:TIGR00797
xref: TIGR_TIGRFAMS:TIGR00957

[Term]
id: AR:0001001
name: drug target modification
namespace: biological_process
def: "Modification or alteration of drug action target by enzymes, which process will result in drug resistance." [ISBN:1555812546]
synonym: "drug target alteration" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0042493 ! response to drug

[Term]
id: AR:0001002
name: drug target replacement
namespace: biological_process
def: "Replacement or subsititution of drug action target, which process will result in drug resistance." [ISBN:1555812546]
synonym: "drug target subsititution" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0042493 ! response to drug

[Term]
id: AR:0001003
name: drug target protection
namespace: biological_process
def: "Protection of drug action target from drug binding, which process will result in drug resistance." [ISBN:1555812546]
synonym: "" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0042493 ! response to drug

[Term]
id: AR:0001004
name: drug enzymatic destruction
namespace: biological_process
def: "Enzymatic inactivation of drug to confer drug resistance." [ISBN:1555812546]
synonym: "drug enzymatic modification" EXACT[]
synonym: "drug enzymatic inactivation" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0042493 ! response to drug

[Term]
id: GO:0046677
name: response to antibiotic
namespace: biological_process
def: "A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms." [GOC:ai, GOC:ef]
is_a: GO:0042221
synonym: "antibiotic susceptibility/resistance" RELATED []
xref: HAMAP:MF_00607
xref: HAMAP:MF_01512
xref: InterPro:IPR000335
xref: InterPro:IPR000871
xref: InterPro:IPR001411
xref: InterPro:IPR001466
xref: InterPro:IPR001958
xref: InterPro:IPR002127
xref: InterPro:IPR003012
xref: InterPro:IPR005008
xref: InterPro:IPR006795
xref: InterPro:IPR007815
xref: InterPro:IPR007887
xref: InterPro:IPR009391
xref: InterPro:IPR010769
xref: InterPro:IPR011248
xref: InterPro:IPR011813
xref: InterPro:IPR011816
xref: InterPro:IPR012149
xref: InterPro:IPR012481
xref: InterPro:IPR012559
xref: InterPro:IPR012618
xref: Pfam:PF00144
xref: Pfam:PF03340
xref: Pfam:PF04705
xref: Pfam:PF05139
xref: Pfam:PF05223
xref: Pfam:PF06308
xref: Pfam:PF07091
xref: Pfam:PF07827
xref: Pfam:PF08050
xref: Pfam:PF08057
xref: PIRSF:PIRSF000706
xref: PIRSF:PIRSF002799
xref: PIRSF:PIRSF015852
xref: PIRSF:PIRSF036464
xref: PRINTS:PR00118
xref: PRINTS:PR00311
xref: PRINTS:PR00400
xref: PRINTS:PR01035
xref: PRINTS:PR01036
xref: PRINTS:PR01037
xref: ProDom:PD011495
xref: PROSITE:PS00146
xref: SP_KW:KW-0046
xref: SP_KW:KW-0817
xref: TIGR_TIGRFAMS:TIGR00216

[Term]
id: AR:0000001
name: antibiotic resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. It is a specific type of drug resistance. Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered by applying an evolutionary stress on a population." [ISBN:1555812546, http://www.wikipedia.org]
synonym:"resistant to antibiotic" EXACT[]
is_a: GO:0046677 ! response to antibiotic

[Term]
id: AR:0000002
name: chloramphenicol resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to chloramphenicol. Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antimicrobial originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae. It was the first antibiotic to be manufactured synthetically on a large scale. Chloramphenicol is bacteriostatic (that is, it stops bacterial growth). It functions by inhibiting peptidyl transferase activity of the bacterial ribosome, binding to A2451 and A2452 residues in the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit, preventing peptide bond formation." [PMID:15539072, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to chloramphenicol" EXACT []
synonym: "Chloromycetin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000003
name: astromicin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to astromicin. Astromicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Astromicin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623]
synonym: "resistant to astromicin" EXACT []
synonym: "fortimicin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000004
name: monobactam resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to monobactam. Monobactam are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, and have a structure which renders them highly resistant to beta-lactamases. Monobactam antibiotics are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]"
synonym: "resistant to monobactam" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000005
name: neomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to neomycin. Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Neomycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to neomycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000006
name: erythromycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to erythromycin. Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people that have an allergy to penicillins. Erythromycin may possess bacteriocidal activity, particularly at higher concentrations by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial 70S rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequently strucutre/function processes critical for life or replication are inhibited." [PMID:15980346, PMID:10582867, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to erythromycin" EXACT []
synonym: "eryc resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000007
name: dibekacin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to dibekacin. Dibekacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Butirosin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623]
synonym: "resistant to dibekacin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000008
name: cefoxitin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to cefoxitin. Cefoxitin is a cephamycin antibiotic often grouped with the second°›generation cephalosporins. Cefoxitin are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to cefoxitin" EXACT []
synonym: "mefoxin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000009
name: tunicamycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to tunicamycin. Tunicamycin is mixture of homologous nucleoside antibiotics that block the reaction of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and dolichyl phosphate in the first step of glycoprotein synthesis." [PMID:1624425, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to tunicamycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000010
name: trimethoprim resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to trimethoprim. Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections. Trimethoprim acts by interfering with the action of bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, inhibiting synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid. Tetrahydrofolic acid is an essential precursor in the de novo synthesis of the DNA nucleotide thymidine." [PMID:11432417, PMID:18024520, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to trimethoprim" EXACT []
synonym: "Trimpex resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000011
name: cloxacillin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to cloxacillin. Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic belongs to beta-lactam." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to cloxacillin" EXACT []
synonym: "Cloxapen resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000012
name: streptothricin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to streptothricin. Streptothricin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Streptothricin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to streptothricin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000013
name: amikacin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to amikacin. Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Amikacin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to amikacin" EXACT []
synonym: "amikin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000014
name: gentamicin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to gentamicin. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Gentamicin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to gentamicin" EXACT []
synonym: "Garamycin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000015
name: methicillin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to methicillin. Methicillin is insensitive to beta-lactamase (also known as penicillinase) enzymes secreted by many penicillin-resistant bacteria. Methicillin are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]"
synonym: "resistant to methicillin" EXACT []
synonym: "meticillin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000016
name: aminoglycoside resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to aminoglycoside.Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit (some work by binding to the 50S subunit), inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to aminoglycoside" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000017
name: lincosamide resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to lincosamide. Lincosamides (eg. lincomycin, clindamycin) are a class of drugs which bind to the 23s portion of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and inhibit early elongation of peptide chain by inhibiting transpeptidase reaction. In this sense they have a similar action to macrolides." [PMID:15135500, PMID:10582867, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to lincosamide" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000018
name: viomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to viomycin. Viomycin sulfate (ViocinN.) is an polypeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. It is produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces puniceus, that binds to RNA and inhibits prokaryotic protein synthesis and certain forms of RNA splicing." [PMID:211438, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to viomycin" EXACT []
synonym: "Viocin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000019
name: spectomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to spectomycin. Spectomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Spectomycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to spectomycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000020
name: carbapenem resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to carbapenem. Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, and have a structure which renders them highly resistant to beta-lactamases. Carbapenem antibiotics are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to carbapenem" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000021
name: ribostamycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to ribostamycin. Ribostamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Ribostamycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to ribostamycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000022
name: polymyxin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to polymyxin. Polymyxins are cationic detergent antibiotics, with a general structure of a cyclic peptide with a long hydrophobic tail. They disrupt the structure of the bacterial cell membrane by interacting with its phospholipids. Polymyxins have a bactericidal effect on Gram-negative bacilli, especially on Pseudomonas and coliform organisms." [PMID:11706007, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to polymyxin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000023
name: enoxacin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to enoxacin. Enoxacin belongs to a group called fluoroquinolones. Ciprofloxacin is bacteriocidal. Its mode of action depends upon blocking bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, thereby causing double-stranded breaks in the bacterial choromosome." [PMID:15914491, http://en.wikipedia.org/]"
synonym: "resistant to enoxacin" EXACT []
synonym: "Penetrex resistance" EXACT []
synonym: "Enroxil resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000024
name: butirosin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to butirosin. Butirosin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Butirosin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623]"
synonym: "resistant to butirosin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000025
name: fosfomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to fosfomycin." [http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to fosfomycin" EXACT []
synonym: "phosphomycin resistance" EXACT []
synonym: "phosphonomycin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000026
name: fluoroquinolone resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to fluoroquinolone. The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics.Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription." [PMID:12697644, PMID:11943863, PMID:11858629, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to fluoroquinolone" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000027
name: roxithromycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to roxithromycin. Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. It is used to treat respiratory tract, urinary and soft tissue infections. Roxithromycin is derived from erythromycin. Roxithromycin may possess bacteriocidal activity, particularly at higher concentrations by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial 70S rRNA complex, protein synthesis and subsequently strucutre/function processes critical for life or replication are inhibited." [PMID:15980346, PMID:10582867, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to roxithromycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000028
name: vancomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to vancomycin. Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Vancomycin inhibits the synthesis of peptidoglycan, the major component of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. Its mechanism of action is unusual in that it acts by binding precursors of peptidoglycan, rather than by interacting with an enzyme." [PMID:16323116, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to vancomycin" EXACT []
synonym: "vancocin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000029
name: teicoplanin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to teicoplanin. Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria." [PMID:16323116, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to teicoplanin" EXACT []
synonym: "teichomycin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000030
name: tigecycline resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to tigecycline. Tigecycline is an glycylcycline antibiotic. It works by inhibiting action of the prokaryotic 30S ribosome, by binding aminoacyl-tRNA." [PMID:11381101, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to tigecycline" EXACT []
synonym: "Tygacil resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000031
name: sulfonamide resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to sulfonamide. In bacteria, antibacterial sulfonamides act as competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS. DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA (para-aminobenzoate) to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells will be unable to divide." [PMID:15673783, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to sulfonamide" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000032
name: cephalosporin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to cephalosporin. Cephalosporin are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. Together with cephamycins they belong to a sub-group called cephems. Cephalosporin are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to cephalosporin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000033
name: macrolide resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to macrolide. Antibiotic macrolides are used to treat infections such as respiratory tract and soft tissue infections. The mechanism of action of the macrolides is inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA. This action is mainly bacteriostatic, but can also be bactericidal in high concentrations." [PMID:15980346, PMID:10582867, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to macrolide" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000034
name: streptogramin a resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to streptogramin a." [PMID:17015629, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to streptogramin a" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000035
name: sisomicin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to sisomicin. Sisomicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Sisomicin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to sisomicin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000036
name: ciprofloxacin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin belongs to a group called fluoroquinolones. Ciprofloxacin is bacteriocidal. Its mode of action depends upon blocking bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, thereby causing double-stranded breaks in the bacterial choromosome." [PMID:15914491, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to ciprofloxacin" EXACT []
synonym: "cipro resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000037
name: apramycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to apramycin. Apramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Apramycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623]
synonym: "resistant to apramycin" EXACT []
synonym: "nebramycin II resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000038
name: netilmicin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to netilmicin. Netilmicin is a member of the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics. These antibiotics have the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Netilmicin is not absorbed from the gut and is therefore only given by injection or infusion. It is only used in the treatment of serious infections particularly those resistant to gentamicin." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to netilmicin" EXACT []
synonym: "netromycin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000039
name: spectinomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to spectinomycin. Spectinomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Spectinomycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to spectinomycin" EXACT []
synonym: "Trobicin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000040
name: streptomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to streptomycin. Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Streptomycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to streptomycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000041
name: bacitracin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to bacitracin. Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. Bacitracin interferes with the dephosphorylation of the C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule which carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane." [PMID:8389741, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to bacitracin" EXACT []
synonym: "baciim resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000042
name: glycylcycline resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to glycylcycline. Glycylcyclines are a new class of antibiotics derived from tetracycline. These tetracycline analogues are specifically designed to overcome two common mechanisms of tetracycline resistance. Presently, there is only one glycylcycline antibiotic for clinical use: tigecycline. It works by inhibiting action of the prokaryotic 30S ribosome, by binding aminoacyl-tRNA." [PMID:11381101, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to glycylcycline" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000043
name: carbenicillin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to carbenicillin. Carbenicillin is an antibiotic belonging to the carboxypenicillin subgroup of the penicillins. It has gram-negative coverage which includes Pseudomonas aeruginosa but limited gram-positive coverage. The carboxypenicillins are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes. Carbenicillin antibiotics are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to carbenicillin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000044
name: cephamycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to cephamycin. Cephamycins are a group of beta-lactam antibiotics, very similar to cephalosporins. Together with cephalosporins, they form a sub-group of antibiotics called cephems. Cephamycin are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to cephamycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000045
name: acriflavin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to acriflavin. Acriflavin is a topical antiseptic. It has the form of an orange or brown powder. It may be harmful in the eyes or if inhaled. Acriflavine is also used as treatment for external fungal infections of aquarium fish." [PMID:11566977, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to acriflavin" EXACT []
synonym: "acriflavin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000046
name: lincomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to lincomycin. Lincomycin is a lincosamide antibiotic that comes from the actinomyces Streptomyces lincolnensis. It binds to the 23s portion of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes and inhibit early elongation of peptide chain by inhibiting transpeptidase reaction. In this sense they have a similar action to macrolides." [PMID:15135500, PMID:10582867, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to lincomycin" EXACT []
synonym: "Lincocin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000047
name: puromycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to puromycin. Puromycin is an aminonucleoside antibiotic, derived from the Streptomyces alboniger bacterium, that causes premature chain termination during translation taking place in the ribosome." [PMID:7608059, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to puromycin" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000048
name: beta lactam resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to beta lactam. Beta-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics that include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and beta-lactamase inhibitors, that is, any antibiotic agent that contains a beta-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. Beta-Lactam antibiotics are bactericidal, and act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to beta lactam" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000049
name: kanamycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Kanamycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]"
synonym: "resistant to kanamycin" EXACT []
synonym: "Kantrex resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000050
name: streptogramin b resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to streptogramin b." [PMID:9746015, PMID:10582867, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to streptogramin b" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000051
name: tetracycline resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to tetracycline. Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum polyketide antibiotic produced by the Streptomyces bacterium. It works by inhibiting action of the prokaryotic 30S ribosome, by binding aminoacyl-tRNA." [PMID:11381101, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to tetracycline" EXACT []
synonym: "Achromycin resistance" EXACT []
synonym: "Sumycin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000052
name: tobramycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to tobramycin. Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Tobramycin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth." [PMID:8385262, PMID:10103173, PMID:11083623, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to tobramycin" EXACT []
synonym: "Nebcin resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000053
name: bleomycin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to bleomycin. Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin acts by induction of DNA strand breaks." [PMID:, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to bleomycin" EXACT []
synonym: "blenoxane resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance

[Term]
id: AR:0000054
name: penicillin resistance
namespace: biological_process
def: "Any process that confers resistance to penicillin. Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) is a group of beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms." [PMID:11585791, PMID:15673804, http://en.wikipedia.org/]
synonym: "resistant to penicillin" EXACT []
synonym: "PCN resistance" EXACT []
is_a: AR:0000001 ! antibiotic resistance