ARDB-Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database

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Gene Ontology Terms for Antibiotic Resistance Genes

Because no controlled vocabulary currently is available to help annotate antibiotic resistance genes, in order to facilitate the search, exchange, comparison and annotation, we have created a set of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, which are used to answer two questions for a gene: (i) what is the resistance profile; (ii) what is the resistance mechanism. To answer the first question, we created a term "resistance to antibiotic" under "GO:0046677 response to antibiotic". Under this newly created GO term, for each antibiotic X, we created a set of "X resistance" terms. To answer the second question, each resistance gene falls into one of five general categories based on mechanism, which are drug target modification (AR:0001001), replacement (AR:0001002), protection (AR:0001003), drug enzymatic destruction(AR:0001001) and drug transport (GO:0015893). Drug transport are sub-classified into ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux (AR:0010001), major facilitator superfamily (MFS) drug efflux (AR:0010002), small multidrug resistance (SMR) drug efflux (AR:0010003), and resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) drug efflux (AR:0010004).

Here is a simple webpage (Antibiotic Resistance GO Terms ) displaying all the newly created GO terms.

The newly created antibiotic resistance GO terms can be downloaded here (antibio_resis.obo) and visualized by OBOEdit.